Articles | Volume 16, issue 1
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17 Feb 2016
Standard article |  | 17 Feb 2016

Vulnerability, resilience, hazard, risk, damage, and loss: a socio-ecological framework for natural disaster analysis

Marco Modica and Roberto Zoboli


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Short summary
Evaluating socio-economic losses due to natural disasters is challenging because of the complexity of the social and ecological systems affected (also under pressure from the expected effects of climate change). This paper suggests a general framework encompassing all the important concepts needed in the assessment of natural disasters. In particular, we propose a set of relationships among vulnerability, resilience, hazard, risk, damage, and loss which can guide socio-economic assessment.
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