Articles | Volume 16, issue 1
Special issue:
Standard article
17 Feb 2016
Standard article |  | 17 Feb 2016

Vulnerability, resilience, hazard, risk, damage, and loss: a socio-ecological framework for natural disaster analysis

Marco Modica and Roberto Zoboli

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Cited articles

Adger, W. N.: Vulnerability, Global Environ. Chang., 16, 268–281, 2006.
Alexander, D. E.: Confronting Catastrophe: New Perspectives on Natural Disasters, Terra and Oxford University Press, Harpenden, UK and New York, 2000.
Baritto, F.: Disasters, Vulnerability and Resilience from a Macro-Economic Perspective: Lessons from the Empirical Evidence. Background paper for the 2009 ISDR Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, International Strategy for Disasters Reduction, 2008.
Birkmann, J.: Risk and vulnerability indicators at different scales: Applicability, usefulness and policy implications, Environmental Hazards, 7, 20–31, 2007.
Cutter, S., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans, E., Tate, E., and Webb, J.: A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters, Global Environ. Chang., 18, 598–606, 2008.
Short summary
Evaluating socio-economic losses due to natural disasters is challenging because of the complexity of the social and ecological systems affected (also under pressure from the expected effects of climate change). This paper suggests a general framework encompassing all the important concepts needed in the assessment of natural disasters. In particular, we propose a set of relationships among vulnerability, resilience, hazard, risk, damage, and loss which can guide socio-economic assessment.
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