Articles | Volume 22, issue 2
Short communication
20 Dec 2022
Short communication |  | 20 Dec 2022

Emergence timing and voltinism of phantom midges, Chaoborus spp., in the UK

Robert J. G. Cockroft, W. Richard Jenkins, Anthony G. Irwin, Steve Norman, and Kevin C. Brown

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Cited articles

Arranz, I., Sala, J., Gascón, S., Ruhí, A., Quintana, X. D., Amoedo, J., and Martinoy, M.: Contribution to the knowledge of the distribution of Chaoborus species (Diptera: Chaoboridae) in the NE Iberian Peninsula, with notes on the spatial and temporal segregation among them, Limnetica, 34, 57–68,, 2015. 
Berendonk, T. and Spitze, K.: Gene flow within and between regions: The population genetic structure of the phantom midge Chaoborus crystallinus (Diptera: Chaoboridae), Limnologica., 36, 147–154, 2006. 
Borkent, A.: The distribution and habitat preferences of the Chaoboridae (Culicomorpha: Diptera) of the Holarctic Region, Can. J. Zool., 59, 122–133,, 1981. 
Brock, T. C. M., Belgers, J. D. M., Roessink, I., Cuppen, J. G. M., and Maund, S. J.: Macroinvertebrate responses to insecticide application between sprayed and adjacent nonsprayed ditch sections of different sizes, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 29, 1994–2008,, 2010. 
Brock, T. C. M., Hammers-Wirtz, M., Hommen, U., Preuss, T. G., Ratte, H.-T., Roessink, I., Strauss, T., and Van den Brink, P. J.: The minimum detectable difference (MDD) and the interpretation of treatment-related effects of pesticides in experimental ecosystems, Environ. Sci. Pollut. R., 22, 1160–1174,, 2015. 
Short summary
Larvae of phantom midges are very sensitive to some pesticides, and populations can be severely affected by relatively low doses. The number of generations these flies produce each year is critical to their potential to recover from pesticide exposure, but this information has not been confirmed precisely. We found strong evidence that one species of phantom midge can have at least four generations per year. This evidence can be used to improve regulatory assessment of pesticides.